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Africa

With energy demand growing twice as fast as the global average, Africa has the opportunity to be the first continent to develop its economy using renewable and efficient energy.
Generation by hydropower (2022)
150 TWh
Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1860 MW
Capacity added (2022)
1860 MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0 MW
Pumped storage capacity added (2022)
3.4 GW

At a glance

Africa has the world’s fastest growing population, yet access to clean, secure, and affordable, energy services has not kept pace with the continent’s expanding needs despite the continent having the largest percentage of untapped hydropower potential in the world. The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Angola, Sudan, Congo and Madagascar, have all been identified as having substantial untapped potential.

Hydropower, among other renewables, could support Africa’s energy sector expansion in a way that is compatible with both the continent’s own development goals and global demand for renewable energy and reach climate objectives. Indeed, the huge increase in solar power in particular, Africa has 60 per cent of the world’s solar potential and the technology could provide 30 per cent of its power by 2050, will increase the demand for energy storage to make the most efficient use of this valuable resource.  

Cahora Bassa plant, Mozambique, AfricaCredit: Hidroeléctrica de Cahora Bassa

Africa had a significant year in terms of hydropower development, over 1 GW of hydropower capacity was installed in nine countries across the continent and large-scale projects are underway to provide affordable and dispatchable electricity.  

60 per cent of the hydropower installed capacity in the region is over 20 years old so modernisation efforts are important to maintain and where possible, improve access to clean and reliable energy. To help address this, the AfDB has implemented the Africa Hydropower Modernisation Program, supported by IHA. This programme provides significant market opportunity for rehabilitation of Africa’s existing hydropower plants and to increase generation capacity at a low cost, and with relatively short lead times and minimal environmental impact.

Foreign investment has been instrumental to the development of new projects in the region, from countries such as China, Canada, the United Kingdom and Norway. Within the continent, the private sector is beginning to finance projects for the first time, as seen in Uganda, Gabon and Cameroon. While this is an encouraging trend, unlocking more finance for sustainable hydropower remains key to Africa’s energy future.  

Removal of generator top covers, Jebba Hydropower Plant, NigerCredit: Mainstream Energy Solutions Ltd


Latest developments

Angola
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan
Bhutan
Brazil
Burundi
Cameroon
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Côte d’Ivoire
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Ecuador
Egypt
Eswatini
Ethiopia
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
Gabon
Georgia
Guinea
Honduras
India
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kyrgyzstan
Laos
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Morocco
Namibia
Nepal
Nicaragua
Nigeria
Norway
Pakistan
Panama
Peru
Philippines
Poland
Portugal
Reunion Islands
Romania
Russia
Rwanda
Sri Lanka
Switzerland
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Tunisia
Türkiye
Uganda
United Kingdom
United States of America
Uzbekistan
Vietnam
Zambia

Angola

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
3,836
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
11
TWh

The Caculo Cabaça hydropower project is a 2 GW run-of-river hydroelectric facility under construction in the Kwanza Norte Province of Angola. The project is being developed by Angola’s Ministry of Energy and Water and is expected to be commissioned in 2024. Upon completion, Caculo Cabaça is expected to be the biggest hydroelectric facility in Angola, surpassing the Laúca hydroelectric power station. Chinese foreign investment helped finance the project, providing a US$4.1bn loan.  Currently, Angola's exploitable potential is 12 GW, of which only 4 GW per cent is currently harnessed, is a focus for government infrastructure plans aimed at addressing increased electricity demand.

Australia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
8,576
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
2,461
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
17
TWh

Australia continues to promote clean energy and to phase out coal capacity, with energy storage playing a critical role in its push towards a renewable energy future in the country. The Queensland Premier has allocated another A$13m in the state budget to accelerate key technical studies to enable a final investment decision to advance the 1 GW/24 GWh Borumba PSH project near Gympie in the state’s south-east.

Queensland’s mid-coast is set to provide 5 GW of storage – enough to supply half of Queensland’s entire energy needs. Stage one of the Pioneer-Burdekin pumped hydro project, said to be part of the largest pumped hydro energy storage scheme in the world (according to Queensland’s premier), was announced in September 2022 and is estimated to be completed in 2032, with the final stage operational by 2035.


Austria

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
14,836
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
5,596
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
36
TWh

The Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Inn power plant was created as a joint project between the Swiss municipality of Valsot and the Austrian municipality of Prutz. The dam offers 89 MW of installed capacity located on the river Inn and generates almost 440 GWh/yr of electricity while supporting the integration of wind and solar. It is the largest newly built run-of-river power station in the Alpine region and cost €600m. Financing included contributions from the European Investment Bank (€150m) and KfW IPEX-Bank (€90m).

Azerbaijan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1,155
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
2
TWh

Azerbaijan inaugurated a cascade of three small hydropower projects that increased the country’s overall installed capacity by 5 MW.

Bhutan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,335
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
11
TWh

Bhutan is close to commissioning four projects which would together add an additional 2.9 GW of installed capacity, which would more than double the current installed capacity in the country.

Brazil

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
109,778
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
20
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
423
TWh

In 2022, Brazil added approximately 300 MW of hydropower after commissioning over 15 hydropower plants, the largest of which was the São Roque plant at 141.9 MW installed capacity.  

Due to socio-environmental considerations, the feasible exploitation is reduced to around 68 GW, highlighting the necessity of a sustainable approach in balancing power generation with ecological conservation. This includes the use of less invasive run-of-river systems, comprehensive socio-environmental impact assessments, and ensuring enhanced community participation in decision-making processes.

Burundi

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
72
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
<1
TWh

An additional 15 MW of power was added to Burundi’s electricity grid by the Ruzibazi hydropower plant, which was handed to the government of Burundi by the Chinese company Sinohydro.

Burundi’s Jiji and Mulembwe Hydropower Plant Development Project is set to be completed in 2025 with a capacity of 48 MW, which will double the energy power generation in the country. Additionally, the Burundian government approved a project to build two hydroelectric power stations on the Mulembwe and Ruvyironza rivers. These facilities will inject 10.65 MW into the local electricity grid and will be built by Songa Energ

Cameroon

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
822
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
6
TWh

In 2022 the first private hydroelectric power plant under 5 MW was commissioned in the village of Mbakou in Cameroon, funded by the French Global Environment Fund. This project is part of a bigger plan aimed to unlock the potential for smaller independent power producers in Cameroon.

Cameroon will see significant hydropower development once the 420 MW Nachtigal hydroelectric power plant in Nachtigal is operational in 2024, which is projected to increase the country’s electricity production by 30 per cent. The Nachtigal Hydro Power Company is implementing the project with a consortium made up of Electricité de France, IFC and the State of Cameroon.

Additionally, British firm Savannah Energy has signed an agreement with the Cameroon government to develop the 75 MW Bini a Warak Hydroelectric Project (the ‘Bini Project’) in the country’s northern region. It is expected to increase current on-grid electricity generation capacity in northern Cameroon by over 50 per cent.  

Canada

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
83,312
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
177
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
392
TWh

Hydropower provided Canada with approximately 61 per cent of the country’s total annual electricity generation and represents more than half of its total generation capacity. The 2023 Canadian Budget introduces a Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit, which is a 15 per cent refundable tax credit for eligible investments in non-emitting electricity generation systems including hydropower (regardless of scale) and PSH, with new projects and refurbishment of existing projects to be eligible.  

The Keeyask power plant in Manitoba (695 MW), the last two of seven generating units were placed in service and the Romaine 4 power plant (245 MW) in Québec reached completion. The last unit came on-line, completing the commissioning of the four-plant cascade system, totalling its generation capacity to 1,550 MW.  

The Champlain Hudson Power Express is a ground breaking high-voltage direct current underwater and underground power cable project that will transfer 10.4 TWh of hydropower from Québec to New York City, expected to be commissioned in 2026.

Canadian TC Energy Corporation is the owner and developer of two pumped hydropower storage projects. The Ontario Pumped Storage Project (1 GW) is expected to become operational in 2030 and will create more than 3,800 jobs. Alberta will host TC Energy’s other project, the 75 MW Canyon Creek Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Project, which will provide up to 37 hours of on-demand, flexible, clean energy and ancillary services to the electricity grid.

Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro have proposed to expand the 604 MW Bay d'Espoir hydroelectric generating station, which began operating more than 50 years ago and includes seven generating units in two powerhouses.

In British Columbia, construction of the 1.1 GW Site C hydro project in Peace River, is ongoing, with the installation of the first turbine runner in 2022 and is expected to be operational in 2025.  

The Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) in Ontario released two reports in 2022: the Pathways to Decarbonization (P2D) and the Annual Planning Outlook, both of which emphasise the need to take action to realise the potential of long-lead time hydropower projects. The IESO has highlighted that permitting and approvals must be streamlined, and Indigenous community participation is essential for success. The P2D assumes an additional 2,000 MW of long-duration storage will be added in the late 2030s to meet adequacy needs.

Chile

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
7,289
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
20
TWh

The Ocean Renewable Power Company is installing the country’s first commercial river hydrokinetic system in the municipality of Chile Chico. This type of system generates electricity without the need for dams or impoundments. The electricity delivered from ORPC devices would displace diesel fuel in the market. This fits in the municipality’s larger plan of expanding its usage of renewable energy by expanding electric vehicle charging networks and tourist traveller services, adding public lighting in off-grid areas in the community and creating additional electrical capacity to support sustainable community development.  

China

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
414,811
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
44,741
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
1354
TWh

In 2022, China added over 15 GW to its conventional hydropower capacity and a further 8.7 GW of PSH. Furthermore, the National Energy Administration published their mid-term and long-term plans from 2021 to 2035 for PSH development which would see installed PSH capacity at least 62 GW in 2025, and around 120 GW in 2030, from the present 44.7 GW.

The 16 GW Baihetan hydropower station, now the second largest hydropower project in the world in terms of total installed capacity, became fully operational in December 2022.  

Finally, Yalong Hydropower is building a 1 GW solar park, Kela Photovoltaic Power Station that will be connected to an operational 3 GW Lianghekou hydropower facility on the Yalong River in Southwestern China. Upon completion, this new hybrid PV-hydropower complex will be the world's largest power plant of its kind. The hydropower side of the project has an adjustable capacity of up to 6.56bn cubic metres of water.

Colombia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
12,563
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
64
TWh

Empresas Públicas de Medellín (EPM) launched the commercial operation of the first two turbine-generator units of its 2.4 GW Ituango Hydropower plant. The plant is delivering continuous electricity supply from 600 MW of capacity to the national grid and once completed in 2024 will provide 17 per cent of Colombia’s electricity demand from its eight units.

Five other hydropower projects came online in 2022, cumulatively adding total generation capacity of over 600 MW.  

Côte d’Ivoire

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
879
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
3
TWh

The AfDB has approved finance for the Singrobo Hydropower project (44 MW) in Côte d’Ivoire. The project will include a 3.5 km transmission line and substation to connect the power generated to the existing grid. This project will contribute to the country’s net zero ambition, as it is projected to reduce Côte d’Ivoire’s emissions by 109,561 tonnes of CO2.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,760
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
15
TWh

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Angola, Sudan, Congo and Madagascar, have all been identified as having substantial untapped potential. The DRC, enriched by the Congo River, holds an exploitable hydropower potential of around 100 GW. However, socio-economic challenges have restricted exploitation to 3 per cent. The Government of the DRC has ambitious plans for the Inga III dam project; if this vision materializes, the DRC could transform into a key player in Africa's electricity industry.

Ecuador

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
5,191
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
25
TWh

Hydropower provided 73 per cent of Ecuador’s electricity, and in 2022, two new plants began operation, Sarapullo (49 MW) and Sabanilla (36 MW) hydropower plants.  

The government of Ecuador has announced a plan to offer public-private partnerships for 10 new hydropower projects with a combined total capacity of 640 MW and investment of US$1.52bn.

Egypt

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,876
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
14
TWh

Egypt has a large undertaking in the coming years as it plans to replace 19 turbines at the Aswan High Dam and Aswan Low Dam, as Ethiopia starts producing electricity from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, which itself is situated on a main tributary of the Nile River. The cost of rehabilitating the stations is estimated at US$48m, which will be financed through a loan from the German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development under an agreement signed with the German Development Bank.

Eswatini

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
61
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
<1
TWh

The Eswatini Electricity Company plans to conduct an environmental and social impact assessment and the associated environmental and social mitigation plan for the 10 MW expansion of the existing Maguga Hydropower plant (10 MW).  

Ethiopia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
4,824
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
14
TWh

As of August 2022, Ethiopia’s Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) began generating electricity from its second turbine, which has a capacity of 275 MW, bringing the dam’s current operational capacity to 750 MW. Once completed, it will have 13 operating turbines, with an expected capacity of 5 GW, making it the largest power plant in Africa. Ethiopia’s exploitable potential is over 30 GW, with roughly 10 per cent being developed, with the GERD as the leading project to be developed.  

France

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
25,669
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
5,050
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
50
TWh

The French government has recently carried out an extensive consultation to support PSH projects. In November 2022, one of the Pelton runners of the Grand’Maison power plant was replaced, the third out of four to be replaced. The new runners have been upgraded from 156 MW to 170 MW, providing around 9 per cent more power generating capacity.

French Guiana

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
119
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
1
TWh

Voltalia is a Brazilian company developing a 2.9 MW run-of-river hydropower station in French Guyana. It is expected to produce 12.7 GWh/yr, which will replace the current diesel generators used in the community and will reduce the carbon footprint of the municipality by more than 18,000 tonnes of CO2 per year.  

French Polynesia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
48
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
<1
TWh

In French Polynesia, planning for the modernisation of the Fa'atauti'a 2 hydroelectric power plant in 2024 and 2025 is a key priority. It was built and commissioned in 1984, with a capacity of 960 kW.  With a total production since its commissioning of 128 GWh and an average of 3.5 GWh per year, this plant alone ensures an annual production equivalent to the consumption of the island of Nuku Hiva.

Gabon

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
331
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
2
TWh

To scale up clean energy production capacity in Gabon, IFC, the Government of Gabon, Meridiam Infrastructure Africa Fund FIPS, Meridiam Infrastructure Africa Parallel Fund FIPS and the Fonds Gabonais d'Investissements Stratégiques, with the support of the Government of Canada, announced a financing package for the Kinguele Aval hydropower plant, the first independent power producer in Gabon.

The Kinguele Aval hydropower plant has an installed capacity of 35 MW and is expected to bring a low-cost clean power generation capacity to Gabon's capital Libreville. IFC expects the project to generate 203 GWh of electricity, amounting to approximately 9 per cent of the country’s current total output, enough to serve 32,000 customers.

Georgia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
3,459
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
11
TWh

A new scheme has been developed in cooperation between the Government of Georgia and the International Monetary Fund to facilitate the use of renewable energies and attract investment to Georgia. The energy support scheme includes incentives to develop 800 MW of hydropower within the large initiative to promote renewable investment.  

In December 2022, Georgian Prime Minister announced they would be resurrecting the Soviet era Khudoni 702 MW hydropower project, which if built will become the second largest hydropower plant in the country.

Guinea

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1,156
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
2
TWh

Guinea has doubled its hydropower production in the nation after the Souapiti hydroelectric facility commissioned the roller-compacted concrete gravity dam equipped with four turbines, totalling 450 MW. The project is co-owned by the Ministry of Energy and Environment of the Republic of Guinea and the operator Société de Gestion et d’Exploitation de Souapiti (SOGES).

Honduras

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
849
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
4
TWh

Honduras is projected to add 200 MW from hydropower plants by 2025, supplying electricity to at least 120,000 homes across the country.  

India

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
51,786
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
4,746
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
175
TWh

India saw an increase in installed capacity with approximately 434 MW new capacity added over the period, with one of the largest projects being the 180 MW run-of-river Bajoli Holi in Himalchal Pradesh. The

country also saw a tremendous increase in generation due to the high increase in monsoon rains. The 1.5 GW Nathpa Jhakri hydropower station set the highest single day generation record in July 2022.  

Two large-scale PSH projects were announced in India in 2022. The Gandhisagar (or Gandhi Sagar) 1,440 MW pumped storage project will use an existing reservoir and have an energy storage capacity of 10 GWh. In the Maharashtra state, JSW Neo Energy announced that they will develop a 960 MW pumped storage project.

Iran

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
12,543
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
1,040
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
15
TWh

Iran saw a year-on-year increase in installed hydropower capacity from 12,193 MW in 2021 to 12,543 in March 2022, an increase of 356 MW.

Ireland

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
508
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
292
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
<1
TWh

EU Member States have given the green light to invest €602m of EU funds in eight cross-border energy infrastructure projects. In Ireland, the Silvermines hydropower plant will receive €4.3m for researching and setting up a pumped storage facility at a historic mining site that will help reduce price volatility, contribute to market stabilisation and increase the flexibility resource of the island’s electricity system.

Israel

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
307
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
300
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
0
TWh

The 344 MW Kokhav Hayarden PSH plant, located near the city of Beit She'an and some 120 km from Tel Aviv, is nearing completion. The project is being built by Power Construction Corporation of China and will become the largest pumped storage power plant in Israel. This will more than double the country’s installed pumped storage capacity.

Italy

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
22,635
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
7,891
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
30
TWh

Built on an existing water barrage created to regulate the water flow in the rice fields of Northern Italy at a cost of €10m, the Palestro project has been developed by Edison using a crowdfunding programme involving local communities, a first for Italy. With an installed capacity of 3.6 MW on the Sesia river; and generation of 13.5 GWh. This is an interesting example of how retrofitting non-powered dams can create new sources of renewable electricity with strong community buy-in.

Kazakhstan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
3,087
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
10
TWh

Kazakhstan set ambitious goals for the development of renewable energy including hydropower. Achieving these goals requires overcoming its dependence on cheap domestic coal and addressing its lack of flexible generating capacity, which provides ample opportunity for foreign hydropower investments.

Kenya

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
873
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
4
TWh

The planned Kerio Valley will be a 60 MW hydropower project on the Arror river basin in Elgeyo-Marakwet, Kenya. The project is currently in the permitting stage and is expected to be developed in a single phase with a commission date in late 2023.

Kyrgyzstan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
3,952
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
12
TWh

In October, the President of Kyrgyzstan took part in the ceremony celebrating construction commencing at Kulanak hydropower project, and in March 2023 the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) agreed to contribute financially to the project. Additionally, EBRD agreed to finance modernisation of hydropower projects in Kyrgyzstan, with Chakan GES, the state-owned hydropower operator of nine small hydro power plants, to receive a financial package of US$13.8m. The money will help finance the rehabilitation and modernisation of the Lebedinovskaya project, which has an installed capacity of 7.6 MW.

Laos

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
9,208
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
38
TWh

Laos added 1,100 MW to its hydropower capacity. The Nam Theun 1 Hydropower Project started commercial operation with a 177m dam located on the Nam Kading River in Bolikhamxay Province. The dam has a total installed capacity of 650 MW, of which a total of 520 MW will be exported to Thailand and 130 MW will be for domestic consumption. The Nam Theun 1 is the last project to be developed in the Nam Theun-Nam Kading hydropower cascade scheme in Laos.  

The Nam Theun 1 Power Company project is a joint venture between Phonesack Group (32 per cent), Chaleun Sekong Energy Company (28 per cent), Electricity Generating Public Company of Thailand (25 per cent), and Electricité du Laos (15 per cent). China’s state-owned Sinohydro Bureau 3 was also engaged in civil works for the project. The cost of the project is estimated at US$1,335m with major financing provided by Bangkok Bank, Export-Import Bank of Thailand, Siam Commercial Bank and TISCO Bank.

Madagascar

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
214
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
1
TWh

In Madagascar, the 28 MW Farahantsana hydroelectric power station was commissioned by the project developer, Tozzi Green Madagascar, and is the largest facility to date in the country. It is operational and the facility provides 6 per cent of Madagascar’s installed capacity, with its four 7 MW Francis turbines.

Madagascar has a technically feasible hydropower potential of 180,000 GWh, yet less than one per cent has been developed so far. Right now, 162 MW of installed hydropower capacity is producing 61 per cent of the nation’s electricity. Sahofika is a 192 MW hydropower project that it still on its permitting stage with an expected commission date in 2024. It is planned to be located on Onive river/basin in Antananarivo. The power plant, including the associated 220 kV transmission line, are being financed by the AfDB.  

Malawi

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
391
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
1
TWh

A joint venture between Norway’s Norfund, Scatec, Electricité de France and British International Investment will develop a 350 MW Mpatamanga hydropower plant in Malawi. The project will increase security of supply, reduce energy shortages, and help secure the country against floods. Mpatamanga will supply electricity to approximately two million people and create 180,000 jobs. This joint venture will also develop the first tri-national Public-Private Partnership in Africa (Ruzizi III HPP) and Malawi’s largest power plant (Mpatamanga HPP) among others.

Mali

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
360
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
<1
TWh

The Gouina hydroelectric power plant in Mali has been commissioned by the Senegal River Basin Development Organisation, an organisation formed by Mali, Senegal, Guinea and Mauritania that jointly manages the Senegal River and its drainage basin. 85 per cent of the US$460m 140 MW run-of-river project was funded by the Export-Import Bank of China.

Mali currently has 756 MW of hydropower capacity under development.

Morocco

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1,770
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
465
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
2
TWh

Another 350 MW hydroelectric facility will be built in Morocco. The Abdelmoumen PSH power plant (350 MW) will be developed by the Office National de l'Electricité et de l'Eau Potable, with Vinci Construction and Andritz Hydro. It is expected to be commissioned in 2023.  

Namibia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
347
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
1
TWh

The proposed 600 MW Baynes Dam on the border between Angola and Namibia received additional support from the AfDB. The AfDB is funding further technical assistance to engage an independent panel of experts to review and validate all the design work according to international standards.

Nepal

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,162
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
3
TWh

Nepal had an increase of 174 MW of installed hydropower capacity. This is due to the many smaller hydropower projects becoming operational, with the largest being the 28 MW run-of-river Lower Likhu project.

The Nepalese government has endorsed hedging regulation in a bid to attract more foreign investment in the country. This provision that will help minimise the potential financial risk emanating from fluctuating asset price including reservoir or semi-reservoir hydropower projects with at least 100 MW of capacity.

Nicaragua

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
159
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
<1
TWh

Empresa Nicaraguense de Electricidad, the state-owned utility, is modernising two power plants and is seeking financing for two hydropower projects that would add nearly 50 MW to the company’s generation capacity.

Nigeria

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,111
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
8
TWh

Mainstream Energy Limited was selected as the concessionaire for the 700 MW Zungeru hydropower plant in Nigeria.  In another development, the National Council of Privatisation an external restructuring scheme proposed by KEPCO Energy Resources Nigeria Limited, the core investor in Egbin power plant. The approval enables the entity to boost its capacity to raise the required capital to double the existing capacity of the plant to 2.6 GW.  

Norway

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
33,807
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
1,441
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
129
TWh

25 small hydropower plants were commissioned during 2022 for a total capacity of 163 MW and expected annual production of 530 GWh. The two most significant planned plants are Smibelg (33 MW) and Tokajjelet (27 MW).

Pakistan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
10,649
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
36
TWh

The Karot 720 MW run-of-river project was commissioned in summer 2022. This project, built by China Three Gorges Corporation (CTG), is the first hydropower project to be completed as part of the China – Pakistan Economic Corridor initiative. Karot will provide stable and affordable energy to Pakistan to meet the electricity demand of roughly 5 million residents, will reduce CO2 emissions by an estimated 3.5 million tons per year and effectively alleviate Pakistan’s power shortage.  

CTG provided scholarships for more than 20 public welfare projects to promote development of surrounding communities. In addition, the project can provide more than 4,500 direct and indirect local jobs each year.

Following a blockage found in a tunnel in July 2022, the Neelum-Jehlum hydropower project became non-operational for safety reasons. The tunnel collapsed in November, but in March 2023 it was reported that the 969 MW project will be operational in July 2023.  

The monsoon period saw substantial increases in generation across the region, however this led to flooding and some projects were heavily impacted. The flooding of the 4,320 MW Dasu hydropower project required a rushed diversion to be constructed to mitigate impacts and to allow further building of the main dam.  

The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority confirmed its ambition to double its current installed

capacity by adding 10 GW by 2030 through the phased completion of its under-construction projects. Contributing to the increase is the 800 MW Mohmand dam project, with expected completion date in 2026, with recent financial support announced by the Saudi Fund for Development.

Panama

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1,845
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
8
TWh

A group of Panamanian lawmakers submitted a draft bill to the national assembly that would declare a 15-year moratorium on granting permits and concessions for new hydroelectric projects in the Chiriquí province. This region is home to most of the country’s hydropower plants, among them the country’s largest – the 300 MW Fortuna plant. Hydropower has been beneficial to the country, but greater regulations need to be implemented ahead of further construction.

Peru

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
5,515
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
30
TWh

RC Hydro has begun initial construction work on the 40 MW Churo run-of-river hydro project in the Lima region of Peru, with an expected cost of US$60 million and completion date in 2024. The electricity produced will be used to supply the national grid. According to the country’s National Interconnected System Financial Operation Committee, Peru will add 650 MW of hydropower in 2023.  

Philippines

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
4,520
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
735
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
9
TWh

Filipino Infrastructure developer Prime Infra is in the pre-development stage of the 500 MW Wawa PSH project in the Rizal province, with construction due to start in 2023. This project has an estimated investment cost of US$1bn and is seen as one of the Philippines’ most strategically important power generation assets in terms of ensuring the immediate reduction of power prices. Wawa is intended to help support the Philippine government’s push toward tripling the country’s green energy generating capacity by 2030 by providing grid stability.

In 2022, the Filipino Government increased its original energy target for the share of renewable energy to 35 per cent by 2030 and 50 per cent by 2040. Additional targets including a 12 per cent reduction in CO2. The Laguna PSH project was announced in October 2022, with a capacity of 800 MW and a cost of US$1.3bn.

Construction is expected to be completed by the end of 2026 and will generate an average annual energy supply of 1,523 GWh.

Poland

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,376
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
1,591
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
2
TWh

In March 2023, the Polish Government introduced a new law to make it easier for PSH development, as they recognised there were barriers making investment harder. The new law allows PSH to be integrated into decisions across multiple permitting authorities, and to make PSH a ‘public purpose’ investment. Supported by the new streamlined authorisation process in Poland, the Polish utility PGE and the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management are cooperating on the construction of a US$1.14bn project offering 750 MW at the Mloty pumped storage power plant in a drive to support the national grid's resilience and reliability.

Portugal

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
8,252
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
3,754
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
9
TWh

Construction continues to complete the Alto Tâmega power plant, which is part of the Tâmega Giga Battery project. The reservoir filling operations are expected in October 2023. This is the last stage prior to completion expected in mid-2024 of the Tâmega Giga Battery project. The project includes the construction of three power plants: Daivões, Gouvães and Alto Tâmega with a total installed capacity of 1,158 MW. Daivões was inaugurated in July 2022 and is a 118 MW Storage Plant. Gouvães was inaugurated in July 2022 and is an 880 MW pump storage plant. Finally, Alto Tâmega with a cost of circa €1.5bn, will have a storage capacity of 20 GWh and is expected to eliminate 1.2 million tonnes of CO2 emissions annually.

Reunion Islands

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
134
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
0
TWh

Andritz has signed a contract with Electricité de France to rehabilitate two horizontal Francis turbines in the 20 MW Takamaka I hydropower plant on the island of La Réunion, set to be commissioned by June 2024.

Romania

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
6,229
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
92
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
14
TWh

Romania announced in 2022 that talks would resume with Bulgaria on building the Turnu Măgurele Nikopol hydropower plant on the Danube River. With this project the two countries would have 420 MW of installed capacity each.

Russia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
55,819
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
1,385
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
219
TWh

There has been a great deal of modernisation to increase capacity at existing hydropower projects across the country. The Volzhskaya hydropower project increased by 63 MW, the Irkutsk hydropower project increased by roughly 25 MW and the Votkinskaya hydropower project increased by 15 MW.  Refurbishments increased Russia’s hydropower capacity by nearly 145 MW in 2022.  

The Russian Prime Minister announced that to increase its renewable energy mix, approximately 7,000 MW of new hydropower projects will be constructed. This is in addition to a plan to commission 128 MW of small hydropower projects by 2025.

Rwanda

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
117
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
0
TWh

The Mushishito-Rukarara V Hydropower Plant was inaugurated in June 2022, adding 5.5 MW to Rwanda’s electricity grid. Omnihydro developed the US$31.1m project that will connect over 175,000 homes with clean energy and will contribute to the country’s ambition of 100 per cent electricity for all.

Sri Lanka

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1,859
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
7
TWh

Resus Energy has connected the eighth smallest hydropower project in Sri Lanka to the national grid, providing an installed capacity of 2.4 MW and expected to produce 8 GWh annually. The development of hydropower in Sri Lanka is part of the bigger plan to achieve 70 per cent of their electric generation from renewables by 2030.

Switzerland

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
17,756
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
4,419
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
34
TWh

In Switzerland, the recently commissioned Nant de Drance (pumped storage) owned by Alpiq, provides a total of 900 MW installed capacity. It has six Francis pump turbines with variable speed technology and 20 GWh storage (equivalent to 400,000 car batteries) with a total cost of circa US$2bn. Unlike many of the plants that preceded it, Nant-de-Drance uses variable speed pump-turbines. It is one of the most flexible assets in the world and power from this 900 MW facility can be available within two minutes. Due to its central location, it will be a key asset to stabilising the European grid.

Tajikistan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
6,484
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
21
TWh

In Tajikistan, the Nurek hydropower project’s rehabilitation progressed after operation began of the first unit rehabilitated. The completion of the unit – the first of nine expected to be rehabilitated – was a major milestone. The new turbine extends the economic life of the unit by 35 years and increased the installed capacity by 40 MW to 375 MW. The Nurek HPP, with an installed capacity of over 3,000 megawatts, generates about 50 per cent of total annual energy demand in Tajikistan.

The World Bank approved US$15m in grant financing for the Technical Assistance for Financing Framework for the Rogun hydropower project in late 2022. This

comes six months after the European Investment Bank expressed interest in financing the ‘world’s tallest dam.’ The World Bank grant will include hiring of experts in dam safety and environmental and social frameworks, and the Rogun project will have a benefit-sharing mechanism to ensure that socio-economic programs receive a portion of the revenues.

Tanzania

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
562
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
2
TWh

In Tanzania, there are several hydropower developments under development. The largest project is the Julius Nyerere hydropower facility with an expected capacity of 2 GW which will increase the country’s installed capacity to 3.7 GW.  

In addition, other smaller hydropower plants are in the planning stages but are expected to produce 600 MW and after these plants are developed, hydropower will contribute over 4 GW to Tanzania’s energy mix.

Thailand

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
4,515
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
1,531
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
7
TWh

In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand is focusing on expanding its pumped storage capacity to increase the security of the system during peak demand and allow for the greater integration of variable renewable energy. It currently operates three facilities totalling 1.53 GW and is reviewing the feasibility of six further projects including the proposed 900 MW Vajiralongkorn pumped storage project in Kanchanaburi Province. The main goals of this feasibility study include conducting geotechnical and geological investigations of the project site and developing a high-level conceptual design for the PSH plant. The planned open-loop project is currently projected to be developed between 2029 and 2036 at an estimated cost of Baht 32bn (US$938.4m).

Malaysia The Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) in Malaysia has set an ambitious target to attract new investments and create more jobs in Malaysia's renewable energy sector. SEDA

announced a feed-in tariff quota application for small hydropower resources. In 2022 it was announced that 127 MW of small hydropower projects became qualified for the scheme.

The 1,285MW Baleh Hydroelectric Project has been commissioned for completion in 2027. The hydropower facility is being developed by Sarawak Energy Berhad Power. The main civil works are being jointly conducted by China Gezhouba Group Company Ltd and local firm Untang Jaya Sdn Bhd.

Tunisia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
66
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
0
TWh

Tunisian utility, Société Tunisienne de l’électricité et du gaz is planning to build a 400-600 MW PSH plant, for a 2029 commissioning date. Robust studies are being conducted on the topographical, geotechnical, environmental, social impact and grid connection before the development of the project. The cost of the studies is covered by the French Development Agency, the European Investment Bank, and the German Development Bank.

Türkiye

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
32,130
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
66
TWh

Construction on the Ysufeli Dam began in 2013 and it was inaugurated in November 2022, with full commercial operations starting in summer 2023. Standing at 275 metres, it is the tallest dam in Türkiye and ranks among the top ten worldwide. It offers a total installed capacity of 558 MW and houses three 180 MW Francis turbine-generator units. Ysufeli Dam’s annual production is 1,900 GWh and which provides US$269m added value a year to the Turkish economy and meets the energy needs of 2.5 million households at a cost of US$1.8bn.

Uganda

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
1,095
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
4
TWh

Two hydropower plants were commissioned in Uganda, adding 21.8 MW of power to the country’s energy mix. Serengeti Energy’s run-of-river Nyamwamba II power plant produces 7.8 MW and Kikagati Power Company Ltd. developed the Kikagati Hydropower Plant producing 14 MW.

United Kingdom

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
4,723
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
2,833
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
5
TWh

In August 2022, the UK Government followed up its consultation on Large-scale Long Duration Energy Storage, by concluding that it has “an important role to play” but faces significant barriers to deployment under the current market framework. They indicated they would develop policies to enable investment by 2024 to ensure sufficient long duration energy storage. A proposal for PSH (Cruachan) was submitted for an expansion of an existing asset (+600 MW) in 2022. Owners Drax are awaiting approval from local authorities on expansion. The total new PSH capacity, if approved, would be 1,040 MW. SSE is providing a £100m investment boost to the Coire Glas PSH project which is expected to require a capital investment of over £1.5bn. The project, which received planning consent from the Scottish Government in 2020 will be capable of delivering 30 GWh (circa 1,500 MW). Gilkes Energy has unveiled scoping plans for its 900 MW Earba Pumped Storage Hydro Project in Scotland with a 33 GWh storage capacity. The developer is now starting public consultations on their plans.


United States of America

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
102,009
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
22,008
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
262
TWh

There were significant policy announcements in the U.S. which are expected to spur investment in both new and existing hydropower.

While droughts have made headlines in the past year in the U.S., researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that even during the most severe droughts observed in the last two decades, hydropower has sustained 80 per cent of average power generation, which is approximately 20 per cent of electricity demand across the West. The U.S. Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Reclamation have both stated that improving the systems across the U.S. is a priority.

A brand-new small hydropower project at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, U.S., will power an estimated 7 per cent of the electricity for the campus. The 2.5 MW state-of-the-art facility started generating power in May 2022 and has operated at about 70 per cent capacity. This project is offsetting 9,700 tons of carbon dioxide annually, benefitting the University and the surrounding community.  

Uzbekistan

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
2,081
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
7
TWh

It was announced that 250 micro-hydropower projects would be completed in the coming years. The Government anticipates there are 17 projects with a total capacity of 197 MW scheduled to be commissioned in 2023. There are 50 micro-hydropower projects with a capacity of 438 MW set to commence shortly. Construction of the Yavan Hydropower project has begun with a ceremony that was attended by the Presidents of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan for the 140 MW new project.

Vietnam

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
17,366
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
53
TWh

Hydropower sources in Vietnam have the potential to produce up to 40 GW of electricity. The total capacity of hydropower, including small hydroelectricity plants, is expected to reach almost 30 GW by 2030.

In 2022, the country added 33 MW installed capacity for conventional hydropower with the completion of the Dak Di 1 Hydro Power Plant.

According to the newly published “Power Development Plan VIII”, the Vietnamese Government is prioritising multi-purpose and PSH projects.

Zambia

Hydropower installed capacity (2022)
3,153
MW
Pumped storage installed capacity (2022)
0
MW
Generation by hydropower (2022)
15
TWh

The final three units of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydropower Station in Zambia have been commissioned, with a total capacity of 750 MW. The five turbines were completed in different stages, with the final turbine becoming operational in March 2023. Built by PowerChina’s subsidiary, Sinohydro, the station is the first of its size in the country and is currently the biggest single infrastructure construction project in Zambia.

During construction, the project created 15,000 jobs for locals and drove the development of industries across Zambia. Now that is it operational, it will supply power to Zambians, as well as exporting electricity to Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Namibia.

Case Study: Africa Hydropower Modernisation Programme

Continent-wide mapping of hydropower modernisation needs. In Africa, nearly 50 per cent of installed hydropower capacity is over 40 years old, and 60 per cent is over 30 years old. As part of its Africa Hydropower Modernisation Programme, the AfDB commissioned IHA to map the status of existing hydropower plants in the continent and identify assets needing modernisation. IHA investigated the conditions of 87 hydropower projects across Africa, using surveys and follow-up interviews with the operators and owners to provide a holistic idea of the development opportunities across the continent.  

Modernisation projects across the continent were categorised based on varying degrees of rehabilitation need: low, medium and high.

The study concluded that 66 plants out of 87 identified are in medium and high need of modernisation, of which 30 currently require urgent intervention. Modernising the existing fleet will help secure the availability of over 14.7 GW installed capacity, increase project flexibility, reduce maintenance costs, enhance water management, and enable safer operations, all while being less cost-intensive than developing green field projects.  

IHA estimated that to secure reliable, efficient and safe electricity generation from the plants in the high-need category, approximately US$2.1bn will need to be invested. As for the medium-need projects, US$4.7bn investment will be required.  

As part of the Africa Hydropower Modernisation Programme, the AfDB is currently finalising the selection of projects that it will support by providing grant funding for relatively simple rehabilitation activities as well as funding for studies required to identify detailed scope and cost of more complex modernisation projects.

The report's public version will be released on 22 June 2023 and available for download from www.ahmpafrica.org.

Interesting fact

Sister Alphonsine Ciza spends her day with a team of nuns and engineers to supervise the micro hydroelectric plant, which generates between 0.05 and 0.1 MW, she built in her town of Miti in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Ciza built the plant to overcome daily electricity cuts in her town and provide power to the residents. The micro plant is responsible for keeping the lights on in the convent, the church, two schools and a clinic free of charge. Without the plant, residents would only have electricity two or three days a week for a few hours.

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